The relative rank order of the LGBT percentages among these four race and ethnic groups has remained roughly the same over the last several years. LGBT identification among blacks and Asians, 4. LGBT identification is more common among those with lower incomes, as has been the case consistently since The income gap is larger this year than it has been, with 6.
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There are no major differences in LGBT identification by educational attainment, although the percentage of postgraduates who self-reported as LGBT is slightly lower than those with less formal education. This update on LGBT identification underscores two significant conclusions. First, the percentage of adults in the U.
Second, the increase has been driven almost totally by millennials, whose self-reports of being LGBT have risen from 5. Gary Gates noted in his report on Gallup data last year: These can include how comfortable and confident survey respondents feel about the confidentiality and privacy of data collected.
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Self-identification as LGBT is only one of a number of ways of measuring sexual and gender orientation. The general grouping of these four orientations lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender into one question involves significant simplification, and other measurement techniques which ask about each of these categories individually yield different estimates.
Additionally, self-identification of sexual orientation can be distinct from other measures which tap into sexual behavior or attraction. The value of the Gallup data is the use of a constant question wording over time and the largest yearly sample sizes of any effort to measure sexual and gender orientation in the U. Therefore, the upward trajectory in these estimates of the LGBT adult population provides an important social indicator relating to this key aspect of contemporary American society.
These results are based on telephone interviews with a random sample of , U. Estimates for years are based on similar sample sizes, with the estimate for about half as large. There are several limitations in the methods and results presented here.
Moreover, the extent of specificity is likely subject to specific cultural contexts, thereby leading to overestimating the numbers of GBMSM with this metric. The metric used for Hornet was unique users with only one account allowed per device. While it is feasible to create multiple accounts on Facebook with unique email addresses, this likely represents a very low proportion of users.
Although Internet usage is increasing rapidly, there is less access in many lower- and middle-income countries, which may underestimate the numbers of GBMSM. However, Internet access around the world continues to increase, especially due to the rapid increase in affordable smartphones, suggesting that the utility of social media-based estimates of population size will increase over time. Moreover, some of the respondents captured online in low- and middle-income countries may be expatriates rather than GBMSM from that country.
The contribution of expatriates to these estimates is considered to be low, given the limited number of expatriates, and only people who noted the country as their country of residence were included. Additional research studying appropriate search strategies according to each social media platform, including large platforms not studied in these analyses, are required. Building collaborations with social media platforms may also facilitate improved estimates of population size along with insights into appropriate strategies to deliver interventions that leverage these platforms.
Taken together, these data clearly suggest a significant discrepancy between size estimates of GBMSM reported by normative agencies and estimates from digital sources. Over four decades of the HIV pandemic, GBMSM have been well known to bear a disproportionate burden of HIV due to the biology of the virus, which is compounded by criminalization, intersectional stigma, discrimination, and violence. Deriving estimates of the numbers of people at risk of acquiring and living with HIV is complex, and other studies have highlighted these challenges for other populations. Developing common methods of counting GBMSM, especially the use of central data collection with consistent approaches, provides an additional data source that is directly comparable across settings.
Although these additional approaches have biases, they are complementary to the biases of existing methods. The approach presented here that leverages social media is imperfect, but is relatively low cost to implement and provides comparable estimates across a large range of countries, including some with no extant estimates.
Triangulating multiple data sources including social media may facilitate optimal estimations of the numbers of GBMSM for program planning, evaluation, and estimates of HIV epidemic dynamics. These methods also allow for the estimation of numbers of GBMSM in settings where stigma and risks of violence are too great to even report in this paper [ 44 ]. The practice of pointing to no data in this instance nonexistent GBMSM size estimates to justify not funding or grossly underresourcing programs for GBMSM has long been identified by advocates, and should be challenged.
Not doing so runs the risk of having evidence-based and human rights-affirming programs that address specific needs of GBMSM disappear. Ultimately, we cannot overstate the importance of understanding the characteristics and numbers of those most affected by HIV to truly achieve an AIDS-free generation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analyses, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Distribution of Facebook identified same-sex interests by country — expanded Table 2. Conflicts of Interest: All other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Feb 8. Reviewed by Teymur Noori and Elizabeth Fearon. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.
In U.S., Estimate of LGBT Population Rises to 4.5%
Corresponding Author: Stefan Baral ude. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License https: The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Objective This study leverages estimates of the number of members of a social app geared towards gay men Hornet and members of Facebook using self-reported relationship interests in men, men and women, and those with at least one reported same-sex interest.
Conclusions The ability to use social media for epidemiologic and HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs continues to improve. Introduction Consensual sex between adult men remains stigmatized in much of the world. Methods The overarching goal of this study was to assess the utility of using data on users of mobile phone apps and social media communities to obtain estimates of GBMSM population sizes. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Distribution of Facebook-identified same-sex interests by country.
Limitations There are several limitations in the methods and results presented here. Conclusions Over four decades of the HIV pandemic, GBMSM have been well known to bear a disproportionate burden of HIV due to the biology of the virus, which is compounded by criminalization, intersectional stigma, discrimination, and violence.
Click here to view. Multimedia Appendix 6 Distribution of Facebook identified same-sex interests by country — expanded Table 2. Multimedia Appendix 7 Age distribution of male Facebook users by country proportion of males. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: References 1. Carroll A, Mendos LR.
May, . State-sponsored homophobia Estimating the size of key populations: AIDS Behav. Baral S, Phaswana-Mafuya N. Sahara J. Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: The Lancet. Khan S, Khan OA. The trouble with MSM. Am J Public Health. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Kinsey Reports. LGBT culture in the Philippines. See also: Psychology Help Center. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 9 December Retrieved Fox News.
Published online. Retrieved January 1, Sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults". Homosexual experience and recent homosexual encounters". Sex Health. Archived from the original on Retrieved 30 January Roy Morgan Research. Retrieved 29 September Ibope in Portuguese.